Because what is a problem for one person is not necessarily a problem for another, how one formulates a problem already contains resourcing and solution implications 1 and 5.
Because solutions, like problem formulations, are value-laden and political, wicked problems have no stopping rules and are not true and false 2 and 3. Unlike math problems, there is no right or wrong answer and the planner stops because funding, interest, or some other factor draws resources away from the effort. Good enough becomes a stand-in for solution or stopping rule.
Also because there are multiple ways of formulating the problem and resourcing solution efforts there neither exhaustive lists of proofs and patterns and there are definitive tests to tell if the effort has actually solved the problem, or reached the good enough, or good enough for now, resting point 4 and 7.
Because of the way that social systems, within which strategy unfolds, are nested any wicked problem could be part of another wicked problem 6. For example, for many in public policy the problem of crime is a wicked problem nested in the problem of poverty another, larger wicked problem.
While it is true that learning occurs, every new problem must be reformulated and not approached as a type. However, given the consequences of failure in human terms, at any point of this process, the wicked problem solver has no right to be wrong Here, clearly, there is a strong ethical component that needs to be emphasized and brought out and into each component of each module. It should be clear, then, that this way of addressing problems is directly relevant to the policy world, and never with more urgency, than in the strategic space where many lives hang in the balance.
Each of these points and others will be described, discussed, and illustrated with concrete examples for throughout the curriculum. What is Design Thinking? Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning. Shamir Eds.
Tel Aviv: Ramot [in Hebrew]. Allport, G. The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley. Bar-On, D.yuzu-washoku.com/components/2020-02-04/248.php
Education Conflict Complexity Chaos by Lynn Davies
Storytelling as a way to work through intractable conflicts: The TRT group in the German-Jewish experience and its relevance to the Palestinian-Israeli context. Journal of Social Issues, 60 2 , — CrossRef Google Scholar. Benhabib, S. From identity politics to social feminism. Trend Ed.
Education and Conflict: Complexity and Chaos
New York, NY: Routledge. Davies, L. Education and conflict: complexity and chaos. London: Routledge Falmer. Educating against extremism. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham.
Education – Laboratory for Unconventional Conflict Analysis and Simulation
Teaching about conflict through citizenship education. Alexander, H. Yonah Eds. Gonzalez, K. Prejudice towards Muslims in The Netherlands: Testing integrated threat theory. British Journal of Social Psychology, 47 4 , — Gross, Z.
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State-religious education in Israel: Between tradition and modernity. Prospects, 33 2 , — Educating for harmony in conflict settings: A case study. Lovat Eds. London: Routledge. Studies in Philosophy and Education , 33 1 , — Jamal, A.
Education toward peace and multiculturalism in a multi-conflict society. Interdisciplinary Thought in Humanistic Education, 2 , 11—16 [in Hebrew].
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