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Solid State Diffusion Bonding of Titanium Alloys

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Diffusion bonding at TWI

Join us on our journey Platform update page Visit emeraldpublishing. Principle of operation Diffusion bonding operates on the principle of solid state diffusion where the atoms of two solid surfaces intersperse themselves over time. This is usually implemented by applying high pressure, in conjunction with necessarily high temperature, to the materials to be bonded. The process is typically accomplished in vacuum chambers with preheated pressing tools.

Mechanical Properties of Diffusion Bonding Joint of SiC and Al-Sn Alloys at Elevated Temperatures

The technique is widely used to bond preforms of alternating layers of thin metal foils and metal wires or ceramic fibres. The joining of aluminium and aluminium base alloys to themselves and to other metals has long created problems because of the tenacious layer of surface oxide which is always present.

Diffusion Bonding Technology

The difficulties become more acute when melting of the components to be joined is not an option. Shirzadi and Wallach have recently developed a technique for diffusion bonding such materials. Some advanced materials cannot be welded by conventional techniques because the high temperatures involved would destroy their properties.

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For such materials, diffusion bonding is an attractive solution because it is a solid state joining technique, which is normally carried out at a temperature much lower than the melting point of the material. Even with this technique, the bond strengths produced are lower than the parent metal because of the planar bond interface which contains oxides and included particles. The new technique is based on imposing a temperature gradient across the surfaces to be joined to produce a non-planar sinusoidal interface which effectively increases the bonding area or metal to metal interface.

This is an exciting development, as it is possible to change the shape of the interface from being planar to cellular, and up to fully dendritic depending on the temperature gradient imposed.


Shear test results on aluminium-based composites and alloys show shear strengths up to parent metal values. It is anticipated that this technique can be used for joining dissimilar metal combinations, metal matrix composites and possibly nickel based materials.

Liquid-state diffusion bonding relies on the formation of a liquid phase at the bond line during an isothermal bonding cycle. This liquid phase then infuses the base material and eventually solidifies as a consequence of continued diffusion of the solute in to the bulk material at constant temperature.

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Despite the presence of a liquid phase, this process is not a subdivision of brazing or fusion welding as the formation and annihilation of the liquid phase occurs at a constant temperature and below the melting point of the base material. The liquid phase in TLP diffusion bonding generally is formed by inserting an interlayer which forms a low melting point phase, e.

Note that the liquid phase could, alternatively, be formed by inserting an interlayer with an appropriate initial composition e. Therefore, the presence of a liquid phase reduces the pressure required for TLP diffusion bonding in comparison with solid-state diffusion bonding and may overcome the problem associated with solid-state diffusion bonding of the materials with a stable oxide layer.


Diffusion bonding of nickel-based superalloy GH4099 with pure nickel interlayer

Achieving high integrity joints with minimal detrimental effects on the parent material in the bond region and also the possibility of joining metal matrix composites MMC and dissimilar materials are the most promising features of TLP diffusion bonding. The picture shows a TLP bond in an aluminium metal matrix composite containing SiC particles as reinforcement. The figure below shows a simple eutectic phase diagram where A represents a pure parent material and B is the diffusing solute i.

Basically, TLP diffusion bonding consists of two major stages as follows. The dissolution stage can be divided into two hierarchical sub-stages in which filler metal melting is followed by widening of the liquid zone. However, if the melting process occurs as a result of interdiffusion of A and B, then melting of the interlayer and widening of the liquid phase may occur simultaneously.